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Precise studies or ic of krzysztof. Initially, based on the hitherto geological t f lith es e-mails: Damian. Stefanski ma. Zajac ma. The cultural units can be described as follow: Holocene — I cultural level with Neolith- la rp site.

The tulian 4 OIS — V cultural level, micoquian; early Vistulian: VI cultural level, taubachien like indus- id y published profiles explicitly indicated the diverse try; Eemian 5e OIS — VII cultural level, mousteri- M nl stratigraphic situations in various parts of the site. The collapsing event had occurred proba- unidentified industry with traces of bifacial tech- nique. For the upper part of the profile with relative- ea ial bly even before the advent of Palaeolithic man here.

A different situation was found by Geology of the Ciemna Cave Krukowski at the actual entry to the cave, where Maciej T. Krajcarz he discovered a much longer stratigraphic section “E with a few scarcely recognizable cultural levels. Although Krukowski has initially outlined the prob- Twarda St. Valley profile. The cave is situat- graphic position of sediments was not supported by ed at altitude m a.

It has one entrance, archaeological findings and lithology. Entrance is exposed to SW. Cave con- formed as typical cave loams.

Almost no traces of sists of one elongated chamber passing into long loess were found there. The profile is over 6 m long corridor. In front of the entrance there exist the and consists of 18 layers, numbered downward. The oldest one consists of layer It is a cave. These parts are now outside of the cave, due terra rosa reddish clay. The age of the layer 18 was IS n to collapse of the ceiling during Pleistocene. Geo- not determined.

It is built mainly of loams or silts rich from the chamber. The outside sediments are main- in limestone rubble. Almost no sedimentary struc- sa du th ly formed as loess with cultural layers. Profile is tures are visible, as the sediments were accumulated almost 8 m long and consists of ten layers, num- by relatively low-energetic factors — frost weather- bered downward. Loess from lower part of the se- ing and karst weathering, with addition of biogen- or ic of quence layers 10—9 was correlated by Krukow- ic accumulation.

The differences t f lith es loess from upper part layers 7—2 with early Vis- between particular layers are marked firstly in col-. Thin layer of loam, between or, rubble content and granulation of fine fractions. No eo os younger and older loess layer 8 , was connected The detailed studies shown also the differences in with Eemian Interglacial MOIS 5e. Humic layer 1 the weathering parameters of rubble and bones, and la rp was correlated with Holocene.

However the strati- composition of trace elements. Ciemna Cave. Basic plan of the cave drawn by M. Herbivores are represented MOIS 5. The series includes several Middle Palaeo- by only 58 specimens. As in other cave sites of the lithic cultural horizons Sobczyk High participation of rubble indicates individuals are taken into account. In all layers of. If the category Ursus sp. M nfe in organic matter. Its Holocene age is proved by ar- Trenches I, IV, and V yielded only 86 large mam- 8 chaeological findings, among others the metal arti- mal remains.

The most complete sediment sequence facts from Middle Ages. Sediments from MOIS 2 are is visible in Trench II, where the greatest number of ng o not preserved and probably were not accumulated, large mammals and total number of bone finds at le ri e c maybe due to temporary closing of the entrance by Ciemna Cave were discovered, i.

All taxa from Trench II are represented sa du th The profile of sediments from Ciemna Cave is by a small number of remains and in each layer only among the longest sequence of cave sediments from single bones or teeth of both carnivores and herbi- Poland, comparable only with profiles of Nietoper- vores were noted. Other well represent- t f lith es Paleozoology of the Ciemna Cave ed species are wolf Canis lupus and foxes specif-.

In all layers 12 specimens belonging to six wolf individuals were found. The present day Ciemna Cave is part of a former larger cave system, recently divided into two caves. In Trench II only 40 bone fragments and cated to the right of the entrance of Ciemna Cave ungulate teeth were discovered, most belonging to id y proper.

Remains of red deer Cervus elaphus M nl e the most part destroyed. Another Cervidae species, reindeer the second cave devoid of a ceiling. Subsequently, Stefan Krukowski conducted Rupicapra rupicapra and ibex Capra cf. A new field works a mountainous environment — ibex.

Seven bones were started in the by Institute of Archaeology and teeth of this species were noted in all trenches. It is known During excavations in the ‘s in total, from Germany, France, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, remains of large mammals were found in four Hungary, and even Belgium or Holland, among oth- trenches. Only bones and teeth could be identi- er regions. Isolated remains were also discovered in fied as belonging to 16 taxa.

Usually from several up to dozens inhabited by Capra caucasica. The distribution of of fragments with traces of fire have been discov- this species included the Black Sea region. During ered at other Palaeolithic sites. It cannot be excluded. However, other localities with remains attractive to large carnivores such as cave hyenas of Capra caucasica are unknown, leading Cre- or wolves, although this possibility is difficult to IS n gut-Bonnoure to suggest a route north of the Alps prove.

It would have been much easier just to throw IS re for the migration of this species. The action an efficient way to eliminate the unwanted entire collection yielded only seven small frag- animal remains. Even small le ri e c teeth fragments a few centimetres in length are References very easy to recognize in palaeontological material.

Both kich. Encyklopedia Polska, vol. IV, part I — part V, Pols-. Pa r pu were found which have traces of fire.

None of the identifiable Acta Geologica Polonica 52 1 , p. In it was IS n researched by L. Chmielewski IS re The Nietoperzowa Cave fig. These were finds un- 8 earthed in the layer of loess with sharp-edged rubble ng o lower section of layer The character of sedi- le ri e c ment, as well as its stratigraphic position indicate that the layer comes from the final part of the Wartanian glacial period Madeyska-Niklewska , Madey- sa du th ska fig.

It contained 34 flint artefacts made with the use of the Levallois technique, in the or ic of form of flakes, blades and Levallois points fig. They were used by the Neanderthal during his short t f lith es stay at the cave, which is additionally proved by. The bones of large mammals No eo os included the following taxa: the cave bear Ursus spelaeus , steppe wisent Bison priscus ,wildcat la rp Felis silvestris , cave lion Panthera leo spelaea , fox Vulpes vulpes , wooly rhinoceros Coelo- Pa r pu donta antiquitanis , horse, red deer Cervus ela- Fig.

View of the Nietoperzowa Cave phot. The bones of the steppe and pieces of charcoal. The C14 dating indicates wisent bear traces of removing the hide. The fauna includ- M nl e levels have been distinguished.

They contained bi- ed taxa, such as : the cave bear Ursus spelaeus , facial flint points fig. The flint n so flint artifacts tools.

One of the cultural levels layer artefacts include among other things : side-scrapers, 13d was interpreted by W. Chmielewski as a sepa- burins, truncated pieces, retouched blades and 50 ea ial rate pre-Szeletian culture Chmielewski The lat- The distinguished fauna includes taxa, such as : ter are artefacts distinctive of the Early Upper Pal- op er the horse, auroch Bos primigenius , steppe wisent aeolithic Jerzmanowice culture, distinguished by bison priscus , and common wolf Canis lupus.

Two other levels of this ur at Layer 13 bore traces proving the intensive cave use. M of the cave bear Ursus spelaeus and the horse, It is in the Upper Palaeolithic levels that the trac- all covered with multiple cuts, which proves fillet- es of an interesting method of hunting cave bears ing and removing the hide off the hunted trophies Ursus spelaeus were found.

Next to the entrance “E Wojtal fig. Bifacial flint leaf-shaped The finds from layers : 14, 13 and 12 are Middle points were also lying around there, which are most Palaeolithic assemblages with the use of the Leval- probably preserved fragments of javelin points.

The animals Layer 6 was most abundant in artefacts. It was escaping from the cave filled with smoke, fell prey made up of dusty clay with fine, smoothed rubble to the hunters who had set the trap.

Guidebook The main profile of the Nietoperzowa Cave after T. Madeyska dl fo Geology of the Nietoperzowa Cave The exploration covered the whole chamber situated at the entrance part of the cave.

They fill the bottom channel with smooth, chemically weathered walls. The cave Figure. This series originated in dry cave and con- opening, looking to SSW is situated 15 m above the sists of loam with limestone rubble. Its grain size ur at valley bottom, m a. The cave found itself composition and weathering degree of the lime- M between the biggest caves in the Polish Jura Chain.

Originally, a big part of the cave was Layer 13 consists of grey brown loam with filled with sediments. They were removed at the end strongly chemically weathered limestone rubble “E of 19th century for agricultural purposes and used as covered with phosphate crust. A weathered stalag- fertilizer. During this digging, archaeological arti- mite was found in this layer. These features point to facts and animal bones were collected by F. The lithologi- From to systematic explorations cal composition of the layers 12 — 10 still points to were provided by W.

Chmielewski , warm conditions, temperate and rather wet climate. The limestone rubble is rounded and weathered. The Nietoperzowa Cave, layer Flint artefacts of levalois-mousterian culture Chmielewski , fig.

Beside big mammals and birds,. The differentiation of No eo os fauna composition in the profile of sediments, ac- cording to ecological requirements of particular la rp animal species provides a possibility to reconstruct Pa r pu environmental changes during the time of sedimen- tation Madeyska Based on geological, zoological and botanical data it was concluded that the oldest part of sedi- dl fo ments originated in dry cave layers 15 — 14 could be dated to the younger part of Penultimate Glacia- id y tion MIS 6.

The Nietoperzowa Cave, layer 13d. Bifacial point Layers 12 — 10 are correlated with the Early Glacial Chmielewski , fig. Layers 9 and ea ial 5 — 2 with Lower and Upper Plenivistulian, it means The loam contains residual clay. The characteris- with MIS 4 and 2 respectively. Layers 14, 9 and 5 — 2 contain loess and angular limestone rubble. In the M layers 3 — 2 it is very fresh, unweathered. These fea- Piotr Wojtal tures point to cold climatic conditions.

The only floristic material found in the sediments It was discovered in , and the first excava- were charcoals. The wood of Fraxinus was found on tions were conducted by J. Zawisza in and than the surface of layer 14, other deciduous in layer 13, by F. Bat guano, which Pinus and Picea vel Larix in layers 13 — 11, 6 and 4. During these activi- of the second series of sediments. Kowalski , ties about 4, cave bear canine teeth were found.

Jaskinia Nietoperzowa, layer Cave bear Ursus speleaus metapodium with cutmarks Wojtal , phot. Between No eo os and , archaeological studies were conducted by W. Chmielewski, who situated trenches in front of la rp the cave, in the corridor, in the entrance of the cham- ber, and inside the chamber. His studies demonstrat- Pa r pu ed that most of the sediments had not been disturbed by earlier work.

Nietoperzowa Cave is a stratigraphically impor- dl fo tant site because it has yielded the most complete sequence of Upper Pleistocene sediments — from id y Eemian interglacial till end of Pleistocene.

M nl e During eight years, of excavations in the s, about large mammal bone remains were dis- n so covered, belonging to 19 taxa. As in other Polish cave sites, carnivore remains greatly outnumber ea ial herbivores. In all Pleistocene layers from 16 to 4 bones and teeth were found belonging to nine op er large Carnivore species.

Jaskinia Nietoperzowa, layer 6. Bifacial leaf point remains were noted in nine layers. Isolated bones or teeth of species sented herbivore species in the bone assemblage. It rarely noted in Polish Late Pleistocene sites were is noted in nearly all layers except the three oldest also found in Nietoperzowa Cave, including badger — 15, 16, and In spite of represented and clearly dominates among herbi- the large amount of cave bear bones and the pres- vores.

The next most abundant group of ungulates ence of numerous flint artefacts in some layers of is the Bovidae. They were noted in nearly all layers Nietoperzowa Cave, the suggestion of Chmielewski except 5, 9, 12, 15, and Most of the bones and that both Neanderthals and modern humans often teeth were discovered in layers 8, 10 where the hunted cave bear is not well supported.

Most of. It clearly dominates Chmielewski W. Pra- among herbivores in Layer Giant deer bones or historia ziem polskich, vol. Folia Quaternaria 5, p. The largest ungulates, woolly rhino Coelodonta paleolit , [in:] Prace Komisji Archeologicznej, vol.

Woolly rhino remains include pretation of the sediments from two caves Deszczowa single bones or teeth in each of six layers. Studia Quaternaria 27, p. Lech, J. Partyka ed. The presence Acta Geologica Polonica 19 2 , Warszawa, p. Furthermore, spatial distribution analyses, In Scladina Cave Belgium , two main Middle as well as the interaction between taphonomic ob- Pa r pu Palaeolithic archaeological complexes were iden- servations and fieldwork, are both components of tified shortly after excavation began in Otte the research Bonjean et al.

The second both the edges and surfaces. Spatial distribution and M nl e archaeological complex comes from the sedimenta- refitting both show that the material is spread over ry unit 5, which was deposited during a cold phase of an area of about 20 meters long inside the cave, n so the Weichselian Early Glacial Period MIS 5d or 5b varying in width.

Interstratigraphic refitting of ob- Bonjean et al. This presentation will de- jects from 3 different layers of unit 1A and 4 other ea ial monstrate the recent results for both assemblages layers of the overlying unit T shows that the arte- that were obtained through multidisciplinary re- facts were successively reworked, with each event op er search both in the field and on the collections. This altering the spatial distribution and taphonomical includes assessing the state of preservation and to properties of the anthropogenic material.

In the low- ur at evaluating the degree of reworking of the objects in est layer that contains artefacts 1A-GL , the lithics the two complexes. This has been done as a preface exhibit a high state of preservation; however, up- M to archaeological interpretation. These recent modifications have only preservation of the bones is less Lamarque These erased any possible traces of anthropogenic activity layers relate to a diversity of sedimentary deposi- Bourdillat Only burned bones, which share tional processes, mainly solifluction, runoff, and the same spatial distribution as the lithics, directly debris flow.

This highlights the complexity of the reflect human activity Bonjean et al. Most of sites: The case of sorted patterned grounds. Quaternary the artefacts exhibit a homogeneous state of preser- International 1—2 , p. This suggests that [in:] M. Toussaint, K. Di Modica and S. Pirson eds , Le. Car- IS n are still fresh compared to those of unit 1A. Patou-Mathis and H. Colloque C3. The archaeological complex of nie. Helinium 23, p.

By the Sea of Azov Region Russia observing the effects of sedimentary reworking n so through the multidisciplinary approach discussed Vera S. Baygusheva1, Vadim V. Titov2 above, the extent of information that an archaeolog- ea ial 1 ical complex can provide about past human activi- Azov museum reserve, Azov, Russia 2 Ins tute of arid zones SSC RAS, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, ties becomes more understood.

As for most Middle e-mail:vv tov yandex. This causes the At the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of south ur at identification of the superposition of successive oc- of Eastern Europe remains of bison are the most cupations in each archaeological complex, as well M common fossils, both in the Paleolithic sites and in the interpretation of the spatial distribution of hu- the natural localities. These animals were the main man activity sites, to both be impossible.

Despite hunting object of the ancient man in the region Bay- these limitations, a large amount of information gusheva, Titov, In particular, in the North “E can still be obtained. By determining the first lay- Caucasus, the Sea of Azov and Lower Volga re- er containing artefacts, the chronology of the two gions they are known from a number of the Middle occupations can be better estimated. Muralovka, Amvrosievka, Zolotovka 1. In contrast to the large sample of bison istics of populations at different periods of polymor- remains from kitchen wastes of Amvrosievka site in phic group of genus Bison existence.

Judging by the – M ce scantily known. Important for solution of some these calcaneal tuber fusion, the share of young animals issues is the material of B. Region, Russia. Fossil remains of Sex composition of the herd was determined pri- animals of one species were confined to the ravine marily on the characteristics and size of astragali ng o filled with finely homogeneous loess-like loams.

Due to the same degree of preser- be traced. In the group of males only one specimen or ic of vation of bones, confined localization of the materi- can be interpreted as an adult one, which is similar al, the ratio of the age and sex, the lacking of traces to the data of Belan Krotova, Belan, Rela- t f lith es of human handling on bones and the absence of im- tive size of posterior metapodiums shows that only.

The them was younger, according to incomplete fusion minimal number of detected individuals is The of lower epiphysis. Horn cies forests and meadow-steppe plant communities cores of B. At one of the lower by K. Flerov as B. Based on the rela- op er jaw with dp2-m1 an unerupted incisor preserved. It tively straight long horns it may be assumed that B. There was carried out the studying of enamel Unerupted second permanent molar tooth m2 is mesowear Fortelius, Solounias, ; Rivals et al. Such a degree of deciduous and , fixing the character of herbivorous animal permanent teeth wearing have met at two more in- feeding based on analysis of the degree of sharpness dividuals.

The comparison of our data with those of of the teeth. The examination of 22 specimens of “E N. Belan Krotova, Belan on B. Thus, taking the birth time of calves points and differs from the modern plains bison in the April-June, we conclude that the loss of the B.

The character of herd has occurred in December-February. The isotopic stages, and the climatic similarity to those of modern forest bisons, and dif- fluctuations within these, are sometimes inferred by fers greatly from those of the North American plains small and large mammal fauna coming from these bison, which together with the food get much more sites.

Relevant deposits, which allow to explain abrasive particles Rivals et al. Symbolic behaviour of the Middle – M ce Females and young individuals were the most abun- dant in the herds. Journal of Anthropology, 15, p. Several research- sa du th VA A. Doklady Earth Sciences, in press. It means that t f lith es wear gradient: A new method for reconstructing paleo-. American Museum Novitates, , p. In considering the history of mankind, there are la rp Krotova A.

Supporters of one of them, believe olithic site in Eastern Europe, [in:] O. Soffer, N. Plenum press, New York, among the population from which modern humans London, p.

They e Research, 68, p. Kahlke ed. Monographien des The symbols are in the most general view, rep- Romisch-Germanishen Zentralmuseums Mainz, 40 1 , resentations or other terms and charac-ters.

They p. In other words, ur at the appearance of symbols is considered one of the Clima c fluctua ons and their main criteria to separate humanity. It is commonly M rela onship with Isotopic Stages inferred believed that the symbols enabled the creation of by varia ons in small and large mammals abstract thinking, faster communication and mental from selected Middle Paleolithic sites of structures, which are often implemented in everyday the Italian peninsula life, ensuring the survival and development of the “E people to limit or even replace biological adap-ta- Claudio Berto, B.

Sala tion. Evoluzione, C. Sani- it can not be linked to the development of symbolic otis and M. Henneberg presented the average culture-specific human biological populations. Fur- characteristics of the two populations. They showed ther research is needed to explain the origins and that these differences are much smaller than some early development of symbolic culture. Last study of the genome from the bones of Ne- pany, Inc, New York. University of Chicago Press, ng o Chicago.

Cambridge Archaeological Journal 18, p. Nature , p. Now it is ev- t f lith es Revolution: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives on ident that they presented symbolic behavior, in par- the Origins of Modern Humans, Edinburgh. Pa r pu residential construction. Before Farming 4, p. Several finds tific American, June , p. Last ur at va, Stefan Cel Mare Str. Contrary to some simplistic views, lapping with the smallest individuals from Ireland.

The upper tooth series lengths premolar series and weak development of cingulum. A very weak Interglacial of Western Europe, but this, apparently, development of the cingulum, which is hardly vis- is not the case of the giant deer from Moldova. The complete upper tooth row is is significantly smaller than the specimen from rather large, slightly exceeding the total length of the M nfe Schlutup, Germany according to data from Pfeiffer largest specimens from Ireland, and falling within 8 and still smaller if compared to the specimen the range of size variation of the sample from Rhine of Irish giant deer stored in the Museum of Natu- Basin of Holland and Germany according to data ng o ral History in Paris.

Unlike the Irish form of giant le ri e c characterized by the relatively narrowest upper ep- deer, the specimen from Brynzeni-I is characterized iphysis among forms involved in the comparison. The single complete met- or ic of ant deer from Dublin, and the sample from Bruine atarsal from Brynzeni-1 approaches the Moldavian Bank Holland.

Although liest remains of M. The metatarsal bone under consideration are among the oldest remains of M. Holsteinian of Steinheim ca.

The lower mandi- giant deer from the Late Anglian of Homersfield, ble thickness and length of lower molar series from Norfolk, England, characterized by particularly large Ofatinti and Duruitoarea Veche are similar to sam- size rivaling the largest specimens from Ireland.

However, unlike Van der Made analyzed the proportions of the sample form from Ireland, the only known in metacarpals of M.

Cingulum metacarpals, and younger Eemian M. The position of metacarpal also very weak as in the sample from Poland. The specimen Cervidae, Mammalia. Courrier Forsch. The mandibles of females are relatively nar- lithic of Russian Plane and Crimea. Lister le ri e c e-mail: paleo umk. Perhaps, the strongly ossified vomer, reduced with a preserved sediment profile from the period size of foramen ovale and strong obliteration of cra- between the Middle Palaeolithic and the Middle or ic of nial sutures should be regarded as characters caused Ages.

The entrance cave mouth, with the north-west by pachyostosis Croitor The nature of cingu- orientation is situated m above the sea level and t f lith es lum is unclear.

This character is very variable. The 6 m above the current bottom of the valley. On the. Perhaps, the cingulum represents a sort The research carried out hitherto has revealed at least of dental hypertrophy related to the hyperostosis of Pa r pu 17 Middle Palaeolithic levels of the cave inhabita- head skeleton in giant deer Croitor Palaeolithic sites in Europe.

Recently, M. Kraj- p. These 24, p. Quaternary International, age of layer 19a and the unearthed assemblage A7, , p. Zoological Journal of Levallois method. They are all of simi- lar typological-technical character, regarded as the Musterian one with the Levallois technique. It can be supposed that even stratigraphically older levels layers 19abcd are of very old, local origin of the Musterian tradition, with the use of the Levallois method in the eastern and western part of the Car-.

It is quite striking that 8 there is a considerable number of blade forms made with the use of the Levallois technique. Most forms ng o denticulate and notched tools can be considered to le ri e c belong to the diversified Musterian tradition. More- over, we cannot rule out the contribution of single sa du th elements of the Micoquian culture in the form of asymmetrical backed knife and and para-burin spall.

In this situation the discussed assemblage would be or ic of metaphorically speaking a palimpsest formed as a result of several, short stays of groups of people t f lith es at the cave.

They could have interchangebly used. Musterian and Micoquian flint tools? Chronostratigraphy of the layers 15 — 19 with assemblages A4 —A8. Rekonstrukcja zasiedlenia jaskini dl fo phases? Studies ing the Wartanian glacial period, is the last sediment of the Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, ea ial including pre-Eemian finds.

At least 7 phases have been ronmental Archaeology, ed. Jiri Chlachula and Norm Cat- distinguished at that time, which can be interpret- to, Quaternary International 1—2 , p. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Geol- were short-lived stays, during which particular ogy, Warsaw University, Warszawa. Most of the larger mammal material has been collected from deposits referred. The mam- e-mail: paleo umk. Thousands of fossil remains The participants of the interdisciplinary research, of smaller and, in particular, larger mammals have carried out since and supervised by K.

Cyrek been revealed. Wiszniowska, P. Woj- Equus mosbachensis is the most numerous species tal, A. Tyc, M. Biostratigraphically it is important to stress that Pa r pu Hitherto, the research has revealed at least 17 the fauna from Channel II contains relicts from the mid-Palaeolithic levels of cave inhabitation. The early Middle Pleistocene Sorex Drepanosorex results from recent years, including geo-chemical sp. Correlation between the faunal re- n so to track down the cultural changes of pre- and Ne- cord from Schoeningen and the different English anderthal cave inhabitants in relation to the natural faunal assemblages referred to MIS 11 — MIS 7 so environment over the period of years.

Many bones have been collected from late Middle Pleistocene have been modified artificially. The analyses of the deposits exposed in the upper levels of the open-cast faunal assemblages presented here apply evidence lignite quarry. A number of different sites have been for Middle Pleistocene hominin subsistence and excavated in the exploited area and thousands of hunting strategies. The most important elements of those tools Palaeolithic leaf points in Central Europe were the two symmetrical edges converging at the tip.

Only such tools from the technological point e-mail: omimea gmail. On the basis of the analyses the author would. For last 50 years many researches were es converging at the tip; both edges were treated in IS re done on the oldest leaf-point horizons MIS 5d — 3.

As a result few dozens of sites can be recently as- M nfe cribed as early leaf-point industries spread all over 8 the Eastern, Central and Southern Europe. Middle Palaeolithic variability in Central The aim of the project was to check if there are Europe: cultural tradi ons versus ng o any significant differences between leaf points and technological and func onal adapta ons le ri e c between leaf points and other bifacial tools among all earliest leaf-point collections. In total 41 collec- Janusz K.

The or- recting. One can see that re- the classical Acheulian, but east from this line the Pa r pu movals performed from different directions had dif- bifacial technology was probably an independent ferent purposes whilst the cutting edge was only of innovation.

The objec- lution buissonnante, manifested in the whole gamut id y tive of its repair was to thin the cutting edge near the of bifacial chaines operatoires, varying tool mor- M nl e tip, correct its thickness and the tip itself. Although phology, and different blank production methods. Throughout decrease; this was probably caused by the impeded the course of repairs the knappers aimed at keeping access to raw materials in new, forested environ- ea ial a long, straight and sharp cutting edge.

The entire ments and difficulties in adapting Micoquian hunt- process of production and rejuvenation was subject- ing strategies to interglacial environments. In OIS op er ed to this aim. It is especially visible in all the parts 5e in Central Europe the most common facies of the where some elements of the tools were resigned Mousterian was Taubachian with microflake tech- ur at from on behalf of others.

The knapping might have nology. This was also tools were not made to be symmetrical. Their sym- a period of further growing diversity of the Mico- metry is a side effect in the process. Those tools can be called bifacial knives. Their shaping took place in separate tool reduction, differing access to raw materials or stages and all other steps considered the aimed adaptation strategies. Although there are dif- jmlopez iphes. Gegant fig. The observation M nfe in Iberia is characterized, according to pollen anal- is coinciding with the attribution of the southern- 8 ysis, by dynamic alternations of the phases of forest most Iberian Peninsula as a climatic refuge, where development and expansion of semi-arid areas, in Neanderthals survived until ca.

In this Acknowledgments context of rapid fluctuations are located the sites We want to thank all members and directors of sa du th of Neanderthal occupations in the northeastern the excavations mentioned in this work for allowing Iberian Peninsula. In this work we are going to ex- us to study the material of small vertebrates.

Fur- pose the environmental and climatic data obtained thermore, this paper is part of projects CGL or ic of from the small vertebrates herpetofauna and small and SGR Using the financial sponsorship of the Spanish Ministry of No eo os quantitative Habitat Weighting and qualitative Science and Innovation.

Black bars indicates the participation of woodland formations; grey bars — the open meadows. There is much variation in the Southern Iberia as a refuge for the last Neanderthal pop- ulations. Journal of Biogeography 38, p. When integrated with cloud software, portfolio owners can choose from a greater range of software applications, allowing them to tailor their performance monitoring dashboards to their specific needs.

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Further, just as software can be written for testability and products can be designed for manufacturability, our production environment can also be designed for safe constructability and maintainability. Make sure that your design team has the awareness and responsibility to hold safe construction and operation as an independent design objective.

As leaders in our field, we hold a responsibility to use the best available tools – not only to achieve our production goals, but also to facilitate a safe environment in which our teams can operate. Fewer incidents means more wind plant uptime. Our field teams and their families will thank us for our use of HPI tools. So will our plant owners. Here are a few of the most useful: Conservative Decision Making: Anticipates the worst-case risks and effects that could result from an incorrect decision.

Selects solutions that meet needs within known constraints while minimizing undesirable consequences to the extent possible. Flagging: Identifies components or equipment that is not to be touched or operated. Also used to draw attention to potential hazards or warn other workers of high-risk environments. Peer-Checking: Performed by a qualified peer after self-checking in the case of design work product , or shoulder-to-shoulder with the primary performer in the case of a field technical activity.

The purpose is to check the action or result, and then require necessary corrections before proceeding to the next step. Pre-Job Briefing: Improves team and individual awareness before arriving at or initiating a project or task. Helps understand – beforehand – the hazards, risks, constraints, work environment, mitigations, along with the activity scope, roles, and responsibilities.

Stop and Collaborate: Used when there are uncertainties known before initiating a project or work-task step. Take the time to ask an expert for advice about the situation or process. Turnover: The systematic transfer of information, tasks, and responsibilities between performers.

A thorough and complete turnover provides time for the oncoming performers to establish an accurate mental model of the work, risks, and mitigations, before accepting the transfer. With over thirty years in the electric utility business, John has specialized in protective relay design, application, and testing, with interest in power system reliability and Human Performance Improvement.

Visit our new booth to learn about our wind solutions at the AWEA conference! February , Coronado, California. From their invention in the late 19th century to present day, transformers devices have become essential to everyday life. In wind turbines, transformers connect the generator to the distribution device. Over the 25 years of their normal life span, a vital step of transformer maintenance is the collection and disposal of the transformer oil. This oil insulates energized components, dissipates heat, and protects the paper insulation from moisture.

Used transformer oil contains 38 chemicals with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, including benzopyrene, PCB, dioxin, and furan. The Stockholm convention included two of these – PCBs and dioxins – on the list of the twelve most hazardous contaminants, and especially harmful to groundwater; under no circumstance should waste oil be allowed into the environment. Incineration is one of the most common ways to recycle oil. Oil can be added to liquid fuel and used for combustion, which is converted into heat.

The biggest problem with this method is that hazardous contaminants, such as lead and sulfur, are released into the atmosphere. This means the oil should be prepared before burning, to minimize the negative environmental impact. Some recycling methods can make oil products from waste oil, including thermal cracking, catalytic hydration, and vacuum distillation. But these require complex equipment; investing in the machinery is only viable for large facilities dedicated to oil recycling.

A rarely-used biological method involves bacteria that consumes hydrocarbons. The resulting inactive microorganisms can serve as fertilizer in parks and flower beds. Figure 1. Transformer oil before and after regeneration. Oil regeneration can significantly reduce the amount of waste, decrease environmental footprint, increase oil service life, improve transformer reliability, and reduce waste oil replacement costs. Regeneration is a process of removing contaminants and products of aging from transformer oil, stabilizing the oil with additives, and restoring its quality so it can be re-used in electrical equipment.

In order to remove all of these contaminants, regeneration must occur in stages. Purification is a stage of the regeneration process – it cannot restore the oil to its original quality on its own.

Deciding on the method of regeneration depends on economic and environmental considerations. The chosen process must not only efficiently restore the properties of the oil, but also generate minimum waste This can be achieved by combining several processes in one machine: 1.

Preliminary filtration is straightforward, involving a mechanical barrier trapping solid particles larger than the openings in the barrier. Table 1: The results of used oil regeneration No. The second stage deserves a more in-depth look.

Adsorbents are natural or synthetic materials that absorb contaminants from the oil on contact. Sludge can be especially dangerous because it concentrates in the solid insulation, and its acidity is much higher than that of the oil.

In the third stage, the oil is pumped into a vacuum chamber with activator elements to increase the contact surface area of the oil. Heat and vacuum extract water and gas from the oil.

Figure 1 shows two samples of the same transformer oil before and after regeneration. The color of the oil has been restored. Laboratory analysis confirms that oil quality parameters acid number, dielectric strength, water and gas content etc.

In the fourth stage, the oil goes into a tank for mixing with an antioxidant additive. When the adsorbent becomes saturated with the contaminants, it can be recycled. The reactivation process clears the pores of the adsorbent, extracting and removing the contaminants into a special collection vessel. After the adsorbent is completely exhausted and cannot be reactivated, the process is performed once more to remove any remaining oil – the deactivated former adsorbent can then be used as a construction material or soil conditioner.

It is important to note that oil regeneration not only improves the oil, but also cleans the transformer including noticeable restoration of solid insulation performance. Transformer oil regeneration is a powerful tool for waste oil recycling. The economics and efficiency of the process stand out among all other methods.

Regeneration saves the costs of oil replacement the cost of the regeneration process is percent lower than the cost of new oil.

It aids transformer maintenance by improving transformer reliability and, if done correctly, does not create waste for disposal or storage. Instead, it allows insulation oil to be restored to good as new condition so it can be reused for insulation and cooling. Moreover, combining the regeneration system with special transformer protection devices Transformer Safety System makes it possible to regenerate oil in energized transformers.

This eliminates power outages, and makes transformer maintenance easy – with no need to drain oil. He has more than 30 years of practical experience in testing, commissioning, and maintenance of industrial equipment. These materials were mostly minerals based on montmorillonite, which is known to have been used in Cyprus to clean wool as far back as B.

Moreover, sending personnel up wind turbines is risky, and should be done only when necessary. In order to achieve these projections — and ensure the profitability of their assets – wind farm owners and operators must take advantage of the latest technologies available to them.

A key part of creating efficiencies to ensure profitability is maximizing turbine uptime. Turbine uptime, or availability, involves making sure that the assets on a wind farm are fully functional during critical energy generation periods. Essentially, it means they are working when the wind is high. The costs of failing to maximize turbine uptime can be considerable, and will only increase with the trend for larger turbines.

With larger turbines, those losses will increase accordingly. The logistical difficulties in some regions of offshore turbine repair mean it can take weeks or months to complete a repair in this environment. With the advent of floating wind farms far out at sea, the complexity of onsite maintenance and repairs will become a greater challenge.

To prevent these costly wind turbine failures, it is necessary to catch problems before they become more serious. Using cost-effective sensors installed in wind turbines to monitor data streams including vibration, oil condition and temperature. Expert engineers then analyze these trends to diagnose issues well before they materialize.

This prevents further damage to the component in question, and limits the consequences of a failure. Predictive maintenance has a number of benefits. For instance, lead time on repairs can be extended by as much as 18 months. This means that orders of new components can be placed well ahead of time, saving significant costs.

Advance warning of potential problems also means that any repair and replacement work can be consolidated; there are fewer trips for personnel, lower crane hire costs because they are planned , and less fuel used by vessels transporting personnel and equipment. Predictive maintenance significantly reduces the risk of catastrophic failures. Similarly, undetected gearbox defects in parallel stage can result in complete gearbox replacement – something that could have easily been avoided with predictive analytics.

Additionally, predictive maintenance makes it easier to manage machine performance, and keep turbines online until a suitable weather window can be found to make repairs.

The bottom line is efficiency. Predictive maintenance can deliver an average reduction of 3 percent on the levelized. Delivering lower cost energy is vital if wind energy is to build on its reputation as a reliable and costeffective source of electricity. Headlines about idle wind turbines brought to a standstill by damage, wear and tear, or failure, risk losing public trust in wind farms and driving investment away.

On the other hand, by showing it can reduce costs, the industry builds confidence in production technologies, making the industry more attractive to investors. Dutch company VerVent, has an offshore wind turbine that is scalable up to 16MW comprising a 1. This design comprises minimal moving parts as well as a limited amount of active material, i. Their new design is compelling and noteworthy because it minimizes technology and commercial risks by utilizing a set of supply chain partners including Siemens, Renk, Eolotec, Geislinger, and Siempelkamp in an effort to maximize margins and minimize Cost of Energy COE.

This is achieved through a drivetrain architecture which has been used on other types of hightorque applications in the past and is being adapted for use in wind energy. Coupled with a stringent testing regime, the VerVent technology can be a marketready solution in as little as 24 months, which allows this technology to be fully exploited in emerging offshore markets with high growth potential including the United States, Japan, Viet Nam, South Korea, Turkey, India, Australia, Azerbaijan, and Brazil.

Featuring multi-layered X-seal technology, Cablefix X is designed to simplify installation without compromising ingress protection.

The X membrane seals are closed by default, eliminating the need to plug unused entry points. These cable entry systems achieve Type 4X, 12, and 13 with a protection class of IP Cablefix X is available with 12 or 23 entry points and provides a space saving alternative to traditional cable glands.

Cablefix X requires only one enclosure cut out and can be installed onto enclosures of any wall thickness with four mounting bolts. For enclosures with a wall thickness of 1. Rated for a user-load of lb, the fully-assembled kit comes ready for deployment and its slim profile means it can be stored compactly and carried by each technician until needed. If a wind turbine goes down, how significantly will this affect your business operations? For Wind Energy stakeholders, this can severely affect their business, and even their reputation.

While serious incidents are unpredictable, a preventive reconditioning program can help keep your equipment reliable and extend its life expectancy. When equipment is operational and business is able to maintain production, capital expenditures unfortunately tend to take a back seat. An effective preventive reconditioning program can drastically reduce the number and severity of electrical and mechanical malfunctions, improve equipment safety, and keep the maintenance, repair, and overhaul expenses economical.

Preventive reconditioning, otherwise known as planned maintenance, is an important aspect in effectively maintaining or servicing equipment in an effort to increase productivity, reliability, and the overall life cycle of the equipment. In many cases, planned reconditioning can prevent catastrophes such as those caused by electrical fires. Wind turbines are extremely expensive pieces of equipment that are required to operate in harsh environments. In the face of these hazards, it is vital to have an effective preventive reconditioning program in place to keep the equipment operating optimally and extend its longevity.

Preventive reconditioning is more than just cleaning the surface of operating equipment. Before a glitch turns into a major problem, preventive reconditioning enables you to locate it and prevent future operational failure. Infrared scanning, for instance, is a thermal imaging technology used to pinpoint locations with elevated temperatures. Identifying the presence of elevated temperatures could indicate that the equipment is malfunctioning — possibly by a loose electrical connection, which may cause a fire.

Instead of bringing in an equipment restoration company after an incident has occurred, when you are under time constraints to fix a problem, performing preventive reconditioning before a loss occurs allows you the extra time to locate the right partner to work with, and keep your wind turbines operational.

From this initial analysis, they can offer suggestions for improvements to the equipment operations and performance. It is much less stressful and, ultimately, less costly to work with a maintenance partner to develop a schedule, which can be based on either calendar dates or usage. Because preventive reconditioning occurs while the equipment is operational, you have the flexibility to head off trouble in a way that will not interrupt production or affect operations. Preventive reconditioning is an upfront investment that helps avoid repairs and asset failures, increasing the longevity of a turbine.

On the other hand, reactive maintenance means that a turbine operates until it breaks. When that happens, repairs are needed immediately to bring the turbine back to operational condition. Generally, no planned maintenance is conducted between operating failures. While this may initially seem like the best option in terms of costsavings, it can actually be the more expensive route when the equipment does fail.

In addition to the costs of repairing the equipment, other costs associated with reacting to an incident include lost production and business interruption. By not being able to predict a breakdown, you also cannot prepare for the repairs in terms of labor and parts, which ends up incurring even greater costs.

An upfront investment in your equipment is an investment in the improvements in your operational costs and processes, including but not limited to increased productivity, reduced equipment and labor downtime and a reduction in unexpected replacement costs. For over 35 years, AREPA has provided comprehensive recovery solutions following property loss to critical equipment and systems. AREPA provides turnkey rapid response to insurance claims professionals, risk managers, and corporations around the world.

Mita-Teknik launched its blade pitch system for onshore and offshore wind turbines. The Mita Pitch System is a flexible pitch solution for turbines up to 12MW, with a design life of 30 years. It has been designed to maximize the availability and performance of wind turbines, while applying minimum loads to the structure. High availability is ensured by fast commissioning, a Built-In-Self-Test scheme for on-the-fly evaluation, simple maintenance procedures, and digitalization.

The system features a modular pitch design with integrated drives, based on various standardized sizes of Hub Units, Blade Units, brushless PM Servo Motors, Asynchronous Servo Motors as well as energy storage based on either ultracapacitors or long life VRLA batteries.

It is designed as an open system allowing OEMs to integrate their own software in the hub controller. The Mita Pitch System offers innovative features such as ruggedized IP65 seawater resistant aluminum housings, smart energy management extending component service life, as well as touchless blade angle monitoring.

Wood has launched a new power price forecasting PPF service to help provide customers with greater certainty around the financial return they can expect from investment in renewable energy projects. This dynamic solution enables them to see where the investment risks and potential upside opportunities could lie throughout the lifecycle of a renewable project based on forecast electricity prices. If you wait, you may be too late.

If you are planning to complete work on your fleet in , now is the time to request a proposal for your blade service needs. The reality, however, is that thousands of islands and other remote communities are struggling to keep up with their basic energy needs.

They rely on expensive, dirty, diesel fuel systems for their electricity. It would seem that renewable energy solutions would be ideal replacements for these diesel systems, especially in the Caribbean islands where sun and wind are abundant.

Unfortunately, when it comes to taking advantage of cleaner technologies, the costs are prohibitive. Land is at a premium in these island nations, so large solar farms are not always viable. Wind offers an alternative, but the costs of transporting large turbine components to smaller islands – with limited port and roadway infrastructure – creates big challenges. How can we ease this pain for small islands and other remote communities, and provide them with viable, accessible, and affordable energy that will drive economic growth, while ensuring that both their economies and communities are less vulnerable to severe weather events?

Rather than trying to adapt current wind technology to reach these goals, however, maybe it would make more sense to borrow from a different industry. In fact, the technology has been around for ages. The mechanics are fairly straightforward: Large Ferris wheels use two rubber truck tires that press up against the rim to turn the wheel. Additionally, we would eliminate the risk of fire and the expense associated with gearbox maintenance and replacement.

Rather than utilizing blades that stretch feet, an alternative would be to use 20 five-foot blades which would act as airfoils on 64 spokes that extend from the hub to the rim. Each blade would individually pitch and customize their collective twist to current wind conditions, ultimately being more efficient than a larger blade with a permanent twist. An even greater advantage: all 1, blades can ship in a standard container.

In fact, all the components can be designed to ship in standard shipping containers. With the axle, rim segments, and tower segments all measuring less than 40 feet, transportation logistics are greatly simplified. Smaller sized components could be easily shipped to ports with limited access, to reach more remote locations lacking developed infrastructures. Without the nacelle and gearbox, the turbine would be light enough to be lifted into place using a hydraulic cylinder.

This cylinder would be a permanent installation that would offer an added advantage – it could be used to lower the turbine for maintenance, or in advance of severe weather. The rated capacity would be kW, but the more efficient design means the turbine would deliver a higher annual output of electricity. Built tough, the Hi-Vis lime material is made from breathable polyester with a polyurethane coating to keep moisture out.

The pieces are constructed with care and quality with sewn and sealed waterproof seams. The rain jacket and coat feature a zipper front closure with a metal button storm flap and an attached drawstring hood which stows away in the collar. The jacket and coat also have a cape back and underarm vents, elastic cuffs, and slash pockets on the front for easy access. The raincoat has a vented bottom for maximum breathability. The pants and bib pants feature metal take up snaps at the bottom of the pant legs for easy wear over boots and work shoes.

The pants and bib pants are designed to allow for maximum movement without any hinderance. They are also built for comfort with an elastic waistband. The bib pants have heavy-duty material at the knees for extra durability and removable kneepads as well as adjustable suspenders for a custom fit. All rainwear pieces are available in sizes small through 5XL. These fully integrated, loop-powered displacement transmitters offer a unique streamlined solution for shaft displacement and vibration monitoring capability for a wide range of industrial machines.

The DTx series are fully integrated transmitters which means the driver oscillator and signal conditioning electronics vibration monitor are built directly into the sensor.

This simplifies installation by eliminating the need and space requirements for a driver, vibration monitor, and eventually a protective housing. The transmitter is looppowered, so its mA signal is not affected by long wiring distances, voltage drops, or noise.

This simplifies installation when connecting to a DCS or PLC, since only two wires have to be connected in the current loop. The DTx series displacements transmitters are versatile from a monitoring perspective. In addition to the mA outputs, there are also buffered output wires for transferring voltage signals to portable monitoring instruments for analysis and data storage.

The transmitters are also built for harsh industrial environments. The DTx series of displacement transmitters are available in three different mounting configurations. One of the most prevalent problems found across all Wind Turbine platforms happens in the yaw system design components.

This article will review several of the components that are known to be troublesome from the design, repair, and obsolescent issues. The turbine computer algorithm controlling the positioning into the wind or out initiates yawing dozens of times per hour. The nacelle-mounted electrical gear Yaw motors engage simultaneously, forcing the nacelle left or right, then disengage upon signal. The platform rotates on a steel disk fixed to the tower; the bearing is a simple set of friction discs or pads placed between the nacelle and the steel ring surfaces, acting as a movement deterrent and brake.

Most yaw motors have an integrated electrical brake. The most popular slide system is the passive. It includes a system of skid-disks, or pucks, in conjunction with a brass. Springs are housed internal to the piston, creating a defined but adjustable pressure downward to the steel that limits Nacelle movement caused by side-winds.

Service technicians must regularly monitor the disc thickness and adjust the force onto the yaw-disc. Turbines are located in all environments; local conditions including ambient air temperatures, moisture content, altitudes, and even simple maintenance practices, can become detrimental to reliable operation. The friction system components and associated electro-mechanical components are negatively affected by these conditions, causing operational problems in several areas.

All Yaw systems are prone to vibration and noise including the disturbing fog-horning noise , maintenance, and the skidmaterials choice. Whether pad or puck, the various materials used to provide the slip-deterrent and yaw braking devices have undergone great research.

One model of turbine platform uses the passive design. This design requires multiple points of consistent downforce, exerted through spring pressure and delivered through placed brass pistons, which push onto and slide material referred to as slide pucks. There are 12 or 18 pistons per turbine, each requiring regular observation and maintenance. Experience with the piston-to-yaw ring interface has proven to have several inherent original equipment design issues, all needing solutions.

Similar applications on other turbines use similar methods of implementation. The frequency of replacement of the slide puck is determined by the user through experience, and is dependent on local conditions. Turbines require either 12 or 18 pucks to operate.

Several OEM and 3rd party solutions have been offered with varied results. Super puck was subjected to long-term testing in various environments, under several corporate nationwide maintenance protocols.

An extension of the Super Puck is the Super Piston. By using the same proprietary material, the one-piece Super Piston, integrated with the puck, replaces the brass piston; this offers extended life with the additional benefit of reducing the brass-piston generated noise and maintenance headaches.

Periodic maintenance or noisy operation may dictate a close inspection of the OEM puck, which requires. Replacement with new springs should be an inherent part of the repair operation whenever new pad sets and holders or pistons are required.

Excessive wear as found on a worn-out brake pad can expose the piston itself to contact directly with the steel yaw ring. This causes expansion of the brass outside of the sleeve hole onto the steel yaw ring surface. Piston Extraction Kit.

If the tower fixed steel yaw ting has experienced damage, a number of repair methods can be applied, including a special puck to resurface and repair the damage without requiring removal from the tower.

Each turbine within a fleet has the unfortunate prospect of having been delivered with a slightly different yaw motorgear design of the adjacent platform, despite a nearly identical electro-mechanical operation. These differences may include voltage, mechanical connection placement, thermistor counts, bearing and such.

This problem can be solved with a new, universal yaw motor to meet the variable needs for the various OEM platforms. WECS is a distributor of components designed to extend the life of wind turbines. WECS works with vendors worldwide to provide factory replacement components, OEM alternatives, updates, and obsolescence alternatives.

Make your condition monitoring data work for you Smart automation not only increases turbine efficiency, but also helps to structure and connect the ever-increasing masses of data involved. Regain control over your turbines with CMS and start planning for your tomorrow. Condition monitoring systems CMS equip turbines with sensors that continuously monitor vibrations across the drivetrain at key locations from the main bearing to the generator.

As components begin to wear and degrade, very specific patterns appear within the vibrations which are acquired by the sensors and identified by the CMS unit. In near real-time, these patterns are analysed to localize the defect, diagnose the issue, and assess the severity. With this knowledge, operators can then plan targeted maintenance activities around an optimal schedule low wind speeds, multiple repairs, etc.

They are easy to retrofit, control integrated and userfriendly. Fully integrated CMS opens the door to smart automation driven by machine health and There is a 30 per cent cost difference between being able to resulting in optimal yield.

With system use all the available data and not having it at your disposal. Wind power is rapidly growing and with it comes increased cyber-security issues. While legacy SCADA systems can provide the access owners want, they carry inherent security vulnerabilities. Security uncompromising Cutting edge communication based on international standards, such as OPC UA and IEC , WPS provides safe and reliable web-based access to all of your turbine data from any smart device, pc, or tablet.

Contact us today Bachmann electronic Corp. With the labor market tightening, companies need to create more efficiencies. What does this mean for companies? Simply put, the push for productivity has more to do with existing resources than new technologies. Here are three questions to help you to get the most out of your supply chain. Leveraging the supply chain is about core competencies and expertise.

Every successful company in the world was created to address a specific need in the market. In more recent years, that has extended beyond piece price to the concept of TCO. That all can be accomplished through outsourcing labor. True supply chain leverage is bringing something to your business from your supply base that is unique — a level of collaboration and achievement that neither organization could accomplish on its own.

How is the supplier affecting quality, delivery, and the overall customer experience? When that impact is positive, leverage is occurring in supply chain utilization. Companies can use the supply chain to increase revenue in a multitude of ways – starting at the most basic leverage point of productivity and output, all the way to improved quality and elevated market perception and status. Increasing capacity through supply chain integration can be a revenue and profit differentiator for high-output operations.

That code is meant for the ‘actions’ dropdown [FS ] r Especially wagons of unavailable railtypes were reported available r As a result the order to go to the waypoint is used to reserve the path after the waypoint and as such trains get lost [FS ] r This also fixes zlib 1. This caused the client to be in the wrong company according to the rest of the clients and the client being kicked on the first command [FS ] r Could cause desyncs if the multiplayer game was not started from a savegame [FS ] r This to prevent people from thinking planting rain forest trees makes the rain forest bigger and thus adds more place to build a lumber mill [FS ] r, r, r In both cases the joining client would not get all commands to get in-sync with the server and the other clients r This avoids deactivated rail vehicles being reactivated if the climate property is set after the rail type property r, r Zero prices break a lot of the internal logic to determine whether something has been done [FS ] r Try harder to shut down timidity and first shut down the music so shut down order is the inverse of initialisation order r Also do not access tiles anymore after clearing them; that fails either in test or exec run [FS ] r Explicit length checks which were not always correct are no longer needed so these are removed to simplify code r As a result the client would say ‘connection lost’ when the cause was something completely different r This to give the user a better chance to get a feeder system without ‘losses’ r Initial startup and window resize could therefore lead to crash [FS ] r Also restore the reserved path in more cases after removing a signal [FS ] r For dedicated server binaries the default is ‘on’, for the rest it is ‘off’ [FS ] r If an articulated vehicle it too ‘wide’ draw the information on the next line and if there are multiple cargoes split that over multiple lines too [FS ] r This makes the behaviour consistent between the two r If at least one data file is missing do not consider the set to be usable.

Do also no autodetect sets with missing files r Awarded subsidies from older savegames are lost [FS ] r This way they will not keep autoreplacing continuously on failure, but only after some timeout.

Also check some minimal requirements engine availability, refittability and a heuristic for the needed money when sending vehicles for autoreplace [FS ] r, r This way you will not get double penalties, both red signals and reservation costs, for the block signalled tracks [FS ] r Of course one can always stop the train manually [FS ] r Now find a sub cargo type with the exact same name and use that, otherwise fallback to 0. Fall back to another cargo sub type with the exact same name, otherwise fallback to cargo sub type 0 [FS ] r This to prevent showing paused and especially unpaused to be shown when the state does not change.

Output now mentions whether pause changes keep the game paused and what reasons for pausing there ‘currently’ are r Now the signals are properly centred which should make that problem go away [FS ] r Also re-enable changing some difficulty settings e.

So use our custom implementation of makedepend r SkipToOrder r It has not been able to compile OpenTTD for months. All attempts to do another workaround failed r This could be used to crash servers [CVE] r Skip unknown chunks and check chunk sizes r Saves space and is supported by more image viewers r Variable 0x09 should not r Affects only few commands r The add window has a pointer to the settings which means that not deleting it would cause dereferencing an already freed pointer [FS ] r Instead disable the randomisation for the first two years after game-start, so you do not have to wait for the first engine r Occasionally this causes asserts to be triggered or crashes [FS ] r Also make cloning multiheaded trains possible with with ‘max – 1′ vehicles existing [FS ] r It will be automatically reset once the vehicle wants to leave the station [FS ] r This only happened when you crashed a vehicle while it was unloading [FS , FS ] r It is still preferable to use Hz output rate if possible as OpenTTD’s sample rate converter is very low quality r When an AI returns false, it will never be chosen as random AI r Also use the values as they were set when the ActionB was executed, not as they are set when the message is shown r On the other hand it was not invalidated in other cases when needed r Mines’ as name to the station of oil rigs, or more general: do not add ‘ Mines’ when the all of the cargoes are part of the liquid, passenger or mail classes [FS ] r


 
 

 

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